An excerpt on philosophy from the book – Aristotle – written by Sharon Katz Cooper.

“The word philosophy comes from two Greek words: philo, meaning “love,” and sophia, meaning “knowledge.” So philosophy really means “love of knowledge.” It is the study of thought and existence. Philosophers ask “big” questions such as, Why are we here? What is our purpose? How do we decide what is right and wrong? What does it mean for something to be true or false? Ancient Greeks were the earliest Western philosophers. Socrates is generally considered the first of these. He was Plato’s teacher, and Plato was Aristotle’s teacher.”




I. Locate a statement confidently described as common sense.

Acting courageously involves not retreating in battle.

Being virtuous requires money.

II. Imagine for a moment that, despite the confidence of the person proposing it, the statement is false. Search for situations or contexts where the statement would not be true.

Could one ever be courageous and yet retreat in battle?

Could one ever stay firm in battle and yet not be courageous?

Could one ever have money and not be virtuous?

Could one ever have no money and be virtuous?

III. If an exception is found, the definition must be false or at least imprecise.

It is possible to be courageous and retreat.

It is possible to stay firm in battle and yet not be courageous.

It is possible to have money and be a crook.

It is possible to be poor and virtuous.

IV. The initial statement must be nuanced to take the exception into account.

Acting courageously can involve retreat and advance in battle.

People who have money have be described as virtuous only if they have acquired it in a virtuous way, and some people with no money can be virtuous when they have lived through situations where it was impossible to be virtuous and make money.

V. If one subsequently finds exceptions to the improved statements, the process should be repeated. The truth, in so far as a human being is able to attain such a thing, lies in a statement which it seems impossible to disprove. It is by finding a what something is not that one comes closest to understanding what it is.

VI. The product of thought is, whatever Aristophanes insinuated, superior to the product of intuition.


AVICENNA – a Persian Islamic Philosopher

Born: 980 – Died: 1037

Avicenna is a Persian islamic philosopher. 

avicennaStrongly regarded for his text ‘The cannon of medicine’ (‘al-Qanun fi at-tibb’) and ‘Book of healing’ (‘Kitab ash-shifa’).

By age 10 Avicenna memorised the koran and by 21 he had accomplished intellectual standards in medicine, mathematics, music, astronomy and logic.

“He stressed the importance of gaining knowledge. He believed that through reason it was possible for an individual to progress through various levels of understanding and eventually reach the truth about God, the ultimate object of knowledge. Avicenna held that God, the originator of existence, is pure intellect.” (Pg 23 – 24, Stokes. P, Philosophy, 2007).